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Dung beetles are beetles that feed partly or exclusively on feces. All of these species belong to the superfamily Scarabaeoidea; most of them to the subfamilies Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae of the family Scarabaeidae. This beetle can also be referred to as the scarab beetle. As most species of Scarabaeinae feed exclusively on feces, that subfamily is often dubbed true dung beetles.
There are dung-feeding beetles which belong to other families, such as the Geotrupidae the earth-boring dung beetle. The Scarabaeinae alone comprises more than anfik, species. Other dung beetles, known as tunnelers, bury the dung wherever they find it.
A third group, the dwellers, neither roll nor burrow: They are usually attracted by the dung burrowing owls collect. The particular species of beetle represented in the numerous ancient Egyptian amulets and works of art was commonly the large sacred scarab Scarabaeus sacer.
This beetle was famous for his habit of rolling balls of dung along the ground and depositing them in its burrows. The female would lay her eggs in the ball of dung. Sirlai they hatched, the larvae would use the ball for food. When the dung was consumed the young beetles would emerge from the hole.
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Millions of amulets and stamp seals of stone or faience were fashioned in Egypt depicted the scarab beetle. It seemed to the ancient Egyptians that the young scarab beetles emerged spontaneously from the burrow were they were born.
Therefore they were worshipped as “Khepera”, which means “he was came forth. The ray-like antenna on the beetle’s head and its practice of dung-rolling caused the beetle to also carry solar symbolism. The scarab-beetle god Khepera was believed to push the setting sun along the sky in the same manner as the bettle with his sirkari of dung.
In many artifacts, the scarab is depicted pushing the sun along its course in the ssirlari. During and following the New Kingdom, scarab amulets were often placed over the heart of the mummified deceased.
These “heart scarabs” such as the one pictured above were meant to be weighed against the feather of truth during the final judgement. The amulets were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead which entreated the heart to, “do not stand as a witness against me.
Several species of the dung beetle, most notably the species Scarabaeus sacer often referred to as the sacred scarabenjoyed a sacred status among the ancient Egyptians. The hieroglyphic image of the beetle represents a trilateral phonetic that Egyptologists transliterate as xpr or pr and translate as “to come into being”, “to become” or “to transform”.
– Heliopolis (Günes Kenti – Annu)
It may have existential, fictional, or ontologic significance. The scarab was linked to Khepri “he who has come into being”the god of the rising sun.
The ancients believed that the dung beetle was only male in gender, and reproduced by depositing semen into a dung ball. The supposed self-creation of the beetle resembles that of Khepri, who creates himself out of nothing. Moreover, the dung ball rolled by a dung beetle resembles the sun. Some New Kingdom royal tombs exhibit a threefold image of the sun god, with the beetle as symbol of the morning sun.
The astronomical ceiling in the tomb of Ramses VI portrays the nightly “death” and “rebirth” of the sun as being swallowed by Nut, goddess of the sky, and re-emerging from her womb as Khepri. The image of the scarab, conveying ideas of transformation, renewal, and resurrection, is ubiquitous in ancient Egyptian religious and funerary art. Excavations of ancient Egyptian sites have yielded images of the scarab in bone, ivory, stone, Egyptian faience, and precious metals, dating from the Sixth Dynasty and up to the period of Roman rule.
They are generally small, bored to allow stringing on a necklace, and the base bears a brief inscription or cartouche. Some have been used as seals. Pharaohs sometimes commissioned the manufacture of larger images with lengthy inscriptions, such as the commemorative scarab of Queen Tiye. Massive sculptures of scarabs can be seen at Luxor Temple, at the Serapeum in Alexandria see Serapis and elsewhere in Egypt.
The scarab was of prime significance in the funerary cult of ancient Egypt. Scarabs, generally, though not always, were cut from green stone, and placed on the chest of the deceased. Perhaps the most famous example of such “heart scarabs” is the yellow-green pectoral scarab found among the entombed provisions of Tutankhamen.
It was carved from a large piece of Libyan desert glass. The purpose of the “heart scarab” was to ensure that the heart would not bear witness against the deceased at judgement in the Afterlife. Other possibilities are suggested by the “transformation spells” of the Coffin Texts, which affirm that the soul of the deceased may transform xpr into a human being, a god, or a bird and reappear in the world of the living.
One scholar comments on other traits of the scarab connected with the theme of death and rebirth:. It has even been pointed out that the mislr ball of dung is created in an underground chamber which is reached by a vertical shaft and sorlari passage curiously reminiscent of Old Kingdom mastaba miair.
The best-known of these being Judean LMLK seals 8 of 21 designs contained scarab beetleswhich were used exclusively to stamp impressions on storage jars during the reign of Hezekiah.
The Istanbul Times: Ergun Candan – Antik Mısır Sırları
The scarab remains an item of popular interest thanks to modern fascination with the art and beliefs of ancient Egypt. Scarab beads in semiprecious anrik or glazed ceramics can be purchased at most bead shops, while at Luxor Temple a massive ancient scarab has been roped off to discourage visitors from rubbing the base of the statue “for luck”. One scholar comments on other traits of the scarab connected with the theme of death and rebirth: Ebced Ilm-i Cifr ve Remil.
Ramses ve Hatti Prensesi. Hatsepsut Hatcepsut – Maatkare – Maat-ka-Ra. Ilm-i Sima ve Kiyafetname. Kripto ve Veri Sifreleme.
Kuran Meal ve Okunus. Osmanlica El Yazmasi ve Matbu Kitaplar. Tarihi Yapilar ve Mimari Eserler. Yahudilik Hiristiyanlik ve Islamiyet.